Scientific Papers

There are a number of scientific papers published about brain inflammation and the outcomes of Perispinal treatment which are available to freely download from the Institute of Neurological Recovery at the following link:

The following is a list of some of the published articles relevant to this research area:

Clark, I. A., Alleva, L. M., & Vissel, B. (2010). The roles of TNF in brain dysfunction and disease. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 128(3), 519-548

Clark I (2012). New Hope for Survivors of Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury. CNS Drugs 26(12): 1071-1072.

Clark, I. A. & Vissel, B. (2016). Excess cerebral TNF causing glutamate excitotoxicity rationalizes treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and neurogenic pain by anti-TNF agents. Journal of Neuroinflammation. DOI: 10.1186/s12974-016-0708-2

Clark, I.A., & Vissel, B. (2015) A neurologist’s guide to TNF biology, and to the principles behind the therapeutic removal of excess TNF in disease.,  Neural Plasticity, Hindawi Publishing Corporation.

Ignatowski, T. A., Spengler, R. N., Dhandapani, K. M., Folkersma, H., Butterworth, R. F., & Tobinick, E. (2014). Perispinal etanercept for post-stroke neurological and cognitive dysfunction: scientific rationale and current evidence. CNS drugs28(8), 679-697

Tobinick E.L., (2016) Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs. CNS Drugs. :1-12. doi:10.1007/s40263-016-0339-2.

Tobinick E., (2009) Perispinal etanercept for neuroinflammatory disorders.  Drug Discovery Today 14(3-4):168-177.

Tobinick E, Kim NM, Reyzin G, Rodriguez-Romanacce H, DePuy V: (2012). Selective TNF inhibition for chronic stroke and traumatic brain injury: an observational study involving 629 consecutive patients treated with perispinal etanercept. CNS Drugs, 26(12):1051-1070.


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